Application of response surface methodology for simultaneous removal of major cations from seawater using metal oxide nanostructures

  • Denga Ramutshatsha Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, PO Box 17011, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa
  • J Catherine Ngila Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, PO Box 17011, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa
  • Patrick G Ndungu Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, PO Box 17011, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa
  • Philiswa N Nomngongo 1. Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, PO Box 17011, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa; 2. DSI/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa; 3. DSI/NRF SARChI Chair: Nanotechnology for Water, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
Keywords: nanomaterials, adsorption, seawater, brine, multivariable optimization

Abstract

 

The objectives of this study were to assess the suitability of metal oxide nanomaterials for removal of major cations Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ from seawater. The as-synthesised nanomaterials were characterized using different techniques, such as XRD, TEM, and BET. The simultaneous removal of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion from aqueous solutions by α-Fe2O3 and SiO2/Nb2O5/Fe2O3 nanostructures was studied using batch method. The influence of different experimental parameters (such as initial metal ion concentrations, mass of adsorbent, sample pH and contact time) that affect the simultaneous removal of metal ions was studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on small central composite design (SCCD). Under optimised conditions, the highest percentage removal was 75%, 92%, 93% and 85% for Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively.

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Published
2020-04-29
Section
Research paper